Medicine

Study finds cigarette smoke also causes major harm to muscles

Study finds cigarette smoke also causes major harm to muscles

It also helps to reduce the effect that you are having on the people around you as the smell and second hand smoke are oftern some of the porpblems surrounding the social side of smoking. However researchers warn than this is too preliminary and more studies are necessary to draw conclusions. The study was released Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine and contrasted the efficacy of different programs in helping people quit smoking. "But, these programs vary considerably, and to date, there has been little evidence to suggest which designs and strategies are most effective", said lead author Scott D. Halpern, MD, Ph.D., an associate professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, and a member of the Steering Committee of the Penn Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics (CHIBE).

The study involving mice was not able to identify which of the 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke were responsible for this damage, however the researchers are hoping to investigate this further.

The participants were randomized into five groups.

The "engaged" workers who also received free smoking cessation aids such as nicotine patches, lozenges and gum, or one of the two FDA-approved stop-smoking drugs, had a quit rate of only 2.9 percent. Urine and blood samples collected at one, three and six months were used to confirm abstinence from cigarettes. The new data show one in five high school students use e-cigarettes, a almost 50 percent increase since the data were last collected in 2014.

In the United Kingdom switching to e-cigarettes from traditional ones is encouraged to allow them to quit.

Over 6000 people participated in the huge trial from whom 1191 were involved actively with the program assigned them to follow individually.

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Moreover, "offering free cessation aids or free e-cigarettes did not increase abstinence among smokers who were given access to information and motivational text messages".

Eighty participants, or 1.3 percent of the study population, successfully kept from smoking for 6 months past the target quit date.

Almost all e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which can harm brain development as teens grow. But in a more recent time period, 2010 to 2014, women had an 8 percent higher incidence rate than men, said one study leader, the American Cancer Society's Ahmedin Jemal.

Additional results of the study showed that the overall costs of the programs per participant who remained smoke-free for at least six months was lower in the financial incentives groups than in either the free e-cigarettes or cessation aids groups. He said that the money was like a "carrot" approach. "By contrast, employers that offer free cessation aids to their employees are paying money whether or not the aids help the smokers quit".

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania enrolled more than 6,000 smokers to see which cessation methods worked best.

Success rates were higher - from 0.7 percent to almost 13 percent - among 1,200 smokers who actively participated.